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      1 - Investigating the Effect of Leisure Time's Perceived Risks on Sports Tourists’ Social Happiness During COVID_ 19 Pandemic
      sahar pirjamadi Ahmad  Mahmoudi Vahid  Saatchian Kamran Romiani
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      This descriptive study sought to investigate the effect of leisure time's perceived risks on the sports tourists’ social happiness during the COVID_ 19 Pandemic using the structural equation model. The study’s statistical population comprised all tourists who used sport More
      This descriptive study sought to investigate the effect of leisure time's perceived risks on the sports tourists’ social happiness during the COVID_ 19 Pandemic using the structural equation model. The study’s statistical population comprised all tourists who used sports tourism complexes in Mashhad, out of whom 381 people were selected via purposive sampling. The required data were collected via Ishraqi et al’ (2017) perceived risks questionnaire and the oxford social happiness scale. The questionnaires’ face and content validities were confirmed by experts, and their construct validity was confirmed via exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, the questionnaires’ reliability, obtained through Cronbach's alpha, was found to be over 0.7. As for analyzing the data, descriptive and inferential statistics such as one-sample T-test and structural equation modeling were used. The study’s results indicated a significant difference between the mean perceived risk components, the tourists’ happiness, and the theoretical mean. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between perceived risk components and the tourist's happiness during the COVID_ 19 Pandemic. Therefore, it is emphasized that factors such as supervision, planning, hardware, security, information provision, organizational matters, and internationally recognized methods be considered in setting sports tourism policies to prevent the psychological consequences of COVID_ 19 and achieve perfect social happiness. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Investigating the Effect of Smart Tourism Technologies’ Select Factors on the Satisfaction of Using Technology in Travel: A Case Study of Yazd Visitors
      هاشم رئیسی سرتشنیزی amirreza konjkav monfared elahe hosseini
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Emerged out of recent advances and the development of information technology, smart tourism provides modern modes of communication, novel ways of collecting information, and new opportunities for value creation and management. Therefore, this study sought to investigate More
      Emerged out of recent advances and the development of information technology, smart tourism provides modern modes of communication, novel ways of collecting information, and new opportunities for value creation and management. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the influence of the technologies used in smart tourism on tourists’ satisfaction with using technology in their travels. The study's statistical population comprised domestic tourists who visited Yazd city in Iran, out of whom 240 individuals were selected via convenient sampling. The required data were collected by administering the 16-item questionnaire proposed by Yoo et al. (2017) and Huang et al. (2017). Moreover, the questionnaire’s technical characteristics were examined in terms of validity (structure and content) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha) to secure the accuracy of the research results. The research hypotheses were also tested based on the partial least squares method using the structural equation modeling and Smart PLS 3 software. The study’s results indicated that all three hypotheses were confirmed, as their t-statistic value was over 1.96. Furthermore, it was found that the highest impact factor belonged to informing aspect of smart tourism technologies, suggesting that offering information, interaction, and accessibility had a significant positive effect on the satisfaction of using technology in travel. It can therefore be argued that satisfaction with the use of technology in travel generates profits for tourism companies, leading to the loyalty of tourists to a particular destination. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Developing a Dynamic Model for Predicting Responsible Travel Intentions Based on the Complexities of Maslow's Needs Pyramid
      mahnaz Doosti-Irani Hamed Fallah Tafti
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      This applied qualitative study sought to classify the factors involved in responsible travel intentions based on Maslow's needs pyramid and elaborate on the causal relationships between the factors so that it can offer a more effective model for marketing sustainable to More
      This applied qualitative study sought to classify the factors involved in responsible travel intentions based on Maslow's needs pyramid and elaborate on the causal relationships between the factors so that it can offer a more effective model for marketing sustainable tourism. To this end, the factors were identified and categorized using the content analysis of the data collected via reviewing the related literature and conducting interviews with apropos experts. Then, systemic thinking was used qualitatively (validated through the experts’ opinions) to develop the interpretive model of causal relations. According to the study’s findings, 23 factors were classified into five categories based on Maslow's needs pyramid as follows: Physiological needs (perceived quality, price, shopping habits, and perceived behavioral control), safety (protection and beliefs concerning the health in responsible travels), love/attachment (environmental concerns, sense of responsibility, perceived effectiveness, environmental awareness, environmental value, spatial belonging, and emotional dependence on residents), respect (social norms, identity representation, satisfaction, advertising, social media content, attitude regarding the responsible travel, beliefs concerning the luxurious nature of responsible travel, and the image of responsible travel), and self-actualization (self-transcendence and personal norms). Moreover, the proposed conceptual model indicated the mutual influence of the factors and categories on each other. Therefore, marketers are required to plan their intended interventions after prioritizing the target group’s responsible needs and selecting the category of needs using systemic thinking. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Investigating the Role of Interpretation in Politics-Cultural Heritage Interaction in Terms of Developing Islamic Republic of Iran’s Cultural Tourism
      Mohammad reza salehi pour akbar pourfaraj Seyed Mojtaba Mahmodzadeh ahmad golmohammadi
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      The development of cultural tourism depends on the interaction of a wide variety of factors. On the other hand, considering the fact that the process of cultural tourism is influenced by Politics and that cultural heritage is regarded as a constructive source for cultur More
      The development of cultural tourism depends on the interaction of a wide variety of factors. On the other hand, considering the fact that the process of cultural tourism is influenced by Politics and that cultural heritage is regarded as a constructive source for cultural tourism, it could be argued that the success of cultural tourism is contingent upon the interaction of Politics and cultural heritage, between which interpretation can act as an intervening factor to establish such an interaction, playing different roles in this regard. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the functions of interpretation as a factor that establish an interaction between politics and cultural heritage and identify the status of such functions in this regard to help the IRI’s cultural tourism benefit from them. To this end, such potential functions were identified by reviewing the related literature and analyzing the qualified experts’ opinions as follows: recalling the spatial identity of historical sites, learning from the ancestors’ works and history, altering the politicians' attitudes towards cultural heritage, strengthening national identity, preserving the historical sites’ structure and spirit, bringing the stakeholders of historical sites closer to each other, fighting against racism and ethnocentrism, correcting historical misunderstandings, converging different cultures, and developing mutual understanding between politicians and the public. Moreover, the surveying phase of the study identified the aggregate opinions of experts concerning the priority of the aforementioned functions using the fuzzy Delphi method. The study’s results revealed that recalling the spatial identity of historical sites, strengthening national identity, and preserving the historical sites’ structure and spirit were those potential functions of interpretation in the interaction between politics and cultural tourism in which the experts had the highest consensus. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Developing a Model for the Destination’s Brand Identity Using Grounded Theory
      hadi asghari حامد بخشی Mozghan Azimihashemi Mohammad Hossein   Imani khoshkho
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Establishing a brand identity for tourism destinations may help ease the problems caused by the intangibility of tourism products and increase the concerted efforts of tourism service providers, ensuring stability in markets and facilitating the process of market segmen More
      Establishing a brand identity for tourism destinations may help ease the problems caused by the intangibility of tourism products and increase the concerted efforts of tourism service providers, ensuring stability in markets and facilitating the process of market segmentation. Therefore, considering the necessity for more attention to the destination’s brand identity due to increased competition within the tourism industry, this qualitative study sought to develop a model for establishing a brand identity for Mashhad city using the grounded theory method. To this end, some twelve managers, professors, and researchers working in the field of brand and tourism in Mashhad were selected to participate in detailed semi-structured interviews using purposive sampling. Then, the collected data were analyzed through open, axial, and selective coding. The study’s findings indicated the positive role of personal factors such as awareness of the destination’s brand or the tourists’ behavioral intentions in developing the brand identity of tourist destinations, which in turn influence the relevant strategies. In other words, such factors help the official select appropriate distinct marketing or development strategies, bringing about a variety of outcomes, including socio-economic development. Moreover, it could be argued that the strategies are set on the grounds of participation development in which the destination’s brand identity is formed. However, intervening factors such as micro and macro environmental factors should also be taken into account in this regard. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Investigating the Effect of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Service Quality, and Customers' Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Hotel Industry: A Case Study of Mazandaran Province’s Parsian International Hotels
      jafar bahari mehdi karoubi Shahla  Bahari
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      This study sought to investigate the effect of organizational citizenship behavior on service quality offered to and the satisfaction and loyalty of customers in the hotel industry, selecting the Parsian International Hotels in Mazandaran province, including the Parsian More
      This study sought to investigate the effect of organizational citizenship behavior on service quality offered to and the satisfaction and loyalty of customers in the hotel industry, selecting the Parsian International Hotels in Mazandaran province, including the Parsian Azadi Hotel in Ramsar, Iran (four-star) and the Parsian Azadi Khazar Hotel in Namakabroud, Chaloos, Iran (five-star) as the cases of the study, which was conducted in summer 2017. The study is regarded as applied in terms of purpose, descriptive in terms of research method, and survey in terms of data collection method, using Structural Equation Modeling and the Smart PKS Software to analyze the collected data. The study’s statistical population comprised all employees and visitors of Persian International Hotels in Mazandaran province, out of which the sample size was selected via random sampling and the Cochran. Moreover, a standard questionnaire was administered to collect the required data, whose reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha. The study’s results indicated that organizational citizenship behavior had a significant positive influence on service quality offered to and the satisfaction and loyalty of the customers. It was also found that the customers’ satisfaction had a significant positive effect on their loyalty and that the customers’ satisfaction had the greatest path coefficient value, exerting the highest influence on the customers’ loyalty compared to other variables. Finally, necessary recommendations were offered based on the results of the data analysis. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Identifying and Analyzing the Driving Forces Involved in Developing Tourism Industry in Kondoleh Village, Sahneh City
      mitra jaliliyan Mohammad Akbarpour Jafar Tavakoli
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Abstract Tourism is regarded as an inflectional factor in developing the communications between nations worldwide in today’s world, providing job opportunities in the economic sector and fostering socio-cultural interactions. On the other hand, rural tourism has widely More
      Abstract Tourism is regarded as an inflectional factor in developing the communications between nations worldwide in today’s world, providing job opportunities in the economic sector and fostering socio-cultural interactions. On the other hand, rural tourism has widely been researched by a wide variety of scholars around the world, as it can help create new jobs, increase the residents’ revenues, and mitigate poverty, especially in villages that enjoy cultural attractions. Therefore, this sought to investigate the key factors and influential driving forces involved in developing tourism in Kandoleh village using the Delphi method and the future study approach. This study is considered applied in terms of purpose, carried out based on new methods followed in the future study, and novel exploratory and analyzing techniques using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods. In this regard, the key indices were identified via Delphi method, and the critical driving forces were detected based on the cross-impact analysis method using the Mick Mac software. The study’s results suggested that out of the twenty-eight key factors identified, efficient management and designation of Kandoleh village as the pilot site for rural tourism were the most influential elements in developing tourism within the village, followed by factors such as increased investments by the private sector, advertising, registering and preserving historical and cultural monuments, and providing security for tourists, respectively. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Assessing the Contributing Factors to the Tourism Professionals’ Attitude and Willingness Towards Green Tourism
      mostafa mahmoudi بهار  بیشمی
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Environmental crises and the destruction of natural resources are the main problems faced by the tourism industry, whose treatment requires concerted efforts to change the needs and behaviors of tourists and to offer green products and services. In this regard, as touri More
      Environmental crises and the destruction of natural resources are the main problems faced by the tourism industry, whose treatment requires concerted efforts to change the needs and behaviors of tourists and to offer green products and services. In this regard, as tourism professionals play an important role in directing the market towards special styles and behaviors, especially environmentally friendly and sustainable behaviors, investigating the factors involved in shaping the attitude and tendency of such professionals to green tourism can help attract the attention of other beneficiaries to this field. The required data for this developmental/applied and descriptive/survey study was collected through a 31-item questionnaire administered to some 102 professionals in the tourism industry who were selected via purposive sampling. The data were then analyzed in the following two parts using the Structural Equation Modeling: 1) the measurement model to be used for examining the technical characteristics of the questionnaire and 2) the structural part to test the research hypotheses. The study’s findings indicated the direct positive influence of religiosity on collectivism, and the indirect effect of religiosity on other variables considered in the study. Moreover, while a positive correlation was found between collectivism, environmental concerns, environmental knowledge, and the tendency toward green tourism, no correlation was observed between religiosity and environmental knowledge, and between environmental knowledge and environmental concerns. Therefore, it is recommended that some courses be added to educational levels concerning how to protect the environment when traveling. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Identification of Tourism Marketing Factors via Metasynthesis
      aziz arfai Farshid Namamian
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Abstract As the most widespread service industry in the world, tourism has managed to take center stage among many managers and researchers. Hence, pinpointing the factors of tourism marketing and offering optimal solutions towards facilitation of tourist absorption a More
      Abstract As the most widespread service industry in the world, tourism has managed to take center stage among many managers and researchers. Hence, pinpointing the factors of tourism marketing and offering optimal solutions towards facilitation of tourist absorption are of prime significance. Not to mention, since only few factors of tourism marketing have been addressed in previous studies, the present research aimed to identify the tourism marketing factors via metasynthesis. In this exploratory applied research, the entire studies on tourism marketing, conducted over 2000-2020, were taken into consideration. To this end, 580 studies were assessed, of which 87 were finally selected purposefully. Finally, through content analysis and combining the relevant literature using open, pivotal and selective coding methods, 78 codes, 21 concepts and six categories were selected and analyzed, whose validity were supported by Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient.The results demonstrated that the key categories were as follows: integrated marketing (incentive promotional mixes), satisfaction, relationship marketing, internal marketing, electronic marketing, and ICT factors. Further, a deep understanding of the existing literature on tourism marketing is presented by the present study. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Identifying Componential Elements of Tourism Marketing Using Metasynthesis Method
      Ehsan Dorostkar
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      As the most widely provided service industry worldwide, tourism has attracted the attention of a wide variety of managers and researchers. Therefore, it is crucially important to identify the componential elements involved in tourism marketing and offer optimal solution More
      As the most widely provided service industry worldwide, tourism has attracted the attention of a wide variety of managers and researchers. Therefore, it is crucially important to identify the componential elements involved in tourism marketing and offer optimal solutions to facilitate tourist attraction. Considering the fact that previous has merely partially investigated the factors involved in tourism marketing, this study sought to conduct a comprehensive examination of such factors, systematically reviewing the expansive related literature. This study is considered exploratory in terms of purpose and applied in terms of nature, using the meta-synthesis method to analyze the collected data. The study’s statistical population comprised 580 studies conducted from 2000 to 2020, out of which 87 studies were selected using purposive sampling. The collected data were then gone through content analysis, coded based on open, axial, and selective coding methods, according to which 78 codes, 21 concepts, and six categories were identified and analyzed using the meta-synthesis method. Finally, the validity of the analyzed data was confirmed by Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient. According to the study’s results, the main categories identified for tourism marketing were as follows: integrated marketing (incentive promotional mixtures); satisfaction; relationship marketing; internal marketing; electronic marketing; and ICT factors. Therefore, it could be argued that this study offers a deep understanding of the existing literature on tourism marketing. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      11 - Metatheorizing Regional Tourism: A Meta-analysis Report
      عباسقلی سنگی نور پور
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Considering the growing number of research articles published on regional planning and tourism worldwide, and the fact that it appears impossible for the researchers to review all of them in detail, it is necessary to analyze the studies conducted in this field whatsoev More
      Considering the growing number of research articles published on regional planning and tourism worldwide, and the fact that it appears impossible for the researchers to review all of them in detail, it is necessary to analyze the studies conducted in this field whatsoever. Moreover, as meta-analysis has recently been welcomed by Iranian researchers, it seems that in a near future, a considerable number of studies on urban and regional planning would apply meta-analysis as their research method. Therefore, this study sought to examine, based on the PRISMA statement, the reports of meta-analysis studies on regional planning published in both Iranian and Non-Iranian journals. To this end, all Iranian and Non-Iranian journals (in Persian and English) in the field of regional planning indexed during the last decade with the subject of regional tourism by such databases as Magiran, SID (Scientific Information Database, affiliated with the Academic Center for Education Culture and Research), Google Scholar, and IranDoc (Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology) were examined, using meta-analysis and tourism as keywords for searching through the aforementioned databases, resulting in the identification of 38 relevant articles. Then, 13 articles were selected based on predetermined criteria, whose data were analyzed based on the PRISMA statement using descriptive statistics. The study’s findings indicated the examined meta-analysis articles were acceptably compatible with the criteria set by the PRISMA statement in terms of overall quality. Moreover, it was found that 38% percent of the articles lacked expected methodological quality. Also, the quality of the meta-analysis studies reported in the field of regional tourism was found to be moderate. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      12 - Designing a model to control deviant behavior among hotel staff with respect to perceived organizational support, burnout and job satisfaction
      Shahed Zandipak Rabeah Zandipak*
      Iss. 20 , Vol. 10 , Autumn_Winter 2022
      Perceived organizational support, burnout, and job satisfaction are variables that can be effective in predicting the extent of deviant behaviors in the organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of perceived organizational support and burnout on de More
      Perceived organizational support, burnout, and job satisfaction are variables that can be effective in predicting the extent of deviant behaviors in the organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of perceived organizational support and burnout on deviant behavior mediated by job satisfaction. The present study is applied in terms of purpose, descriptive-survey in terms of nature and method. To test the hypotheses, a questionnaire consisting of 21 questions arranged according to the Likert 7-choice spectrum was used. The statistical population of the study includes the staff of three, four and five star hotels in Mashhad with more than 1000 people; The sample size was 278 people, which was selected based on Krejcie and Morgan table by relative stratification method and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated using Spss software and confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the validity of the structure using Lisrel software. In order to analyze the findings, the path analysis model was used and to analyze the mediating variable, the Sobel test was used. The results showed that perceived organizational support and burnout can have a significant direct and indirect effect on deviant behavior. To investigate the role of the mediator variable, the Sabel test method was used, which showed that job satisfaction plays the role of the mediator variable in the relationship between other variables. Manuscript profile
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Identifying and Prioritizing Different Aspects of Tourist's Experience Quality from Viewpoints of Foreign Tourists Traveled to Shiraz
      mahdi farmani mohammad ghaffari Navid Shafiei mostafa zandinasab
      Iss. 17 , Vol. 9 , Spring_Summer 2021
      Nowadays, tourist experience and tourist destination choice are the main focal points in the tourism industry and tourism-related subjects addressed at universities. As modern tourists are value-oriented, tourist destinations could only be successful if they create valu More
      Nowadays, tourist experience and tourist destination choice are the main focal points in the tourism industry and tourism-related subjects addressed at universities. As modern tourists are value-oriented, tourist destinations could only be successful if they create value for their visitors. Moreover, the Quality of tourists' experiences is a key competitive advantage for tourist destinations. This descriptive-survey study, therefore, sought to identify and prioritize different aspects of tourist experience quality from the viewpoint of tourists visiting Shiraz. The statistical population of this study comprised of those foreign tourists who visited Shiraz in April and May of 2019 and stayed at the Grand Hotel of Shiraz. To collect the required data, a questionnaire was administered on 400 visitors who were selected via convenience sampling. The questionnaire's construct validity was measured and approved by experts, and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's Alpha. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to identify different aspects of tourist experience quality and validate the identified aspects, respectively, using SPSS and LISREL software. Moreover, to prioritize the aspects, the Shannon Entropy method was implemented in EXCEL software. The study's findings indicated that tourist experience quality consisted of ten aspects. It was also found that perceived interactive experience ranked first in that list from the respondents' standpoint. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Studding the Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in hotel industry
        ebtehal zandi
      Iss. 5 , Vol. 3 , Spring_Summer 2015

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Creating a Sustainable Competitive Advantage in the Hotel Sector (The integrated approach of agency theory and Resource Based View)
        mostafa mahmoudi mehdi karoubi akbar pourfaraj
      Iss. 14 , Vol. 7 , Autumn_Winter 2019
      This paper studied sustainable competitive advantage in competencies required by the hotel staff to ensure the permanent competitiveness of the hotels. The Resource-based View emphasizes the organizations need to attend internal resources, especially human resources. Th More
      This paper studied sustainable competitive advantage in competencies required by the hotel staff to ensure the permanent competitiveness of the hotels. The Resource-based View emphasizes the organizations need to attend internal resources, especially human resources. The agency approach emphasizes on staff role-play and their interaction within the framework. This research was a developmental-applied and descriptive-quantitative survey. For data collection, we distributed a questionnaire of 73 questions among a random selection of 260 individuals, including the managers and the staff of five-star hotels in Tehran. Using the structural equation modeling, we analyzed the data in both the measuring model section and the structural section to examine the technical features and the research hypothesis, respectively. Findings showed positive and meaningful impacts of the action-framework variable on the competent actor, and the competent actor showed the same impacts on creating a sustainable competitive advantage in the forms of productive, process, and administrative innovations. Based on the results, there was a relationship between the factors of action framework (i.e., mental welfare, affirmative freedom grant, knowledge sharing, revolutionary leadership, organizational equality, providing psychological conventions) and inter-personal, intra-personal skills and managerial skills and organizational competence of the staff. Finally, the hotel managers in Iran were recommended to provide the groundwork for staff role-play and to design job-tests and performance-appraisal standards, based on the skills and competencies identified in this study. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Typology of Cultural Tourism Action (Case Study: Mashhad pilgrims and tourists)
      Sahar Eghbali Mozhgan  Azimi Hashemi  
      Iss. 6 , Vol. 3 , Autumn_Winter 2016
      This study analyzes different types of cultural tourism action and its influencing factors among the pilgrims and tourists in Mashhad. The authors’ theoretical approach is a combination of motivation, attitude and Bourdieu’s capital theory.In this research required data More
      This study analyzes different types of cultural tourism action and its influencing factors among the pilgrims and tourists in Mashhad. The authors’ theoretical approach is a combination of motivation, attitude and Bourdieu’s capital theory.In this research required data were collected by means of a questionnaire with the sample size of 302, pilgrims and tourists, in Mashhad during March 2013(Iranian New Year holidays). Based on the research findings, the cultural tourists are divided into three categories: “specific cultural tourists” including tourists whose traveling aim is visiting cultural destination, “general cultural tourists” including tourists that during their travels, they will visit cultural destinations as well and “incidental cultural tourists” including tourists that accidentally and unknowingly will visit cultural destinations. Also, the results indicated that facilities will affect both attitudes and motivations toward cultural travel. Coefficient of determination model showed that the entered variables explain 45 % of the dependent variable variations (cultural travel action) and education level have the greatest effect on the variable of cultural travel action. Regarding the results, there are appropriate potential in order to promote cultural tourism, which will help tourists to gain more experiences while visiting cultural attractions and /or taking part in cultural events. Furthermore, it seems educated people are the main participants of this type of tourism. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Factors Affecting satisfaction and support of tourism in rural areas (Case study: Masjedsoleiman, Andika, and Lali Counties)
      alireza ahmadi
      Iss. 6 , Vol. 3 , Autumn_Winter 2016
      One of the effective factors in the process of developing tourism is to consider the host community in the tourism areas and their satisfaction of such activities. Success of each tourism project is required raising knowledge and determination of effective factors on sa More
      One of the effective factors in the process of developing tourism is to consider the host community in the tourism areas and their satisfaction of such activities. Success of each tourism project is required raising knowledge and determination of effective factors on satisfaction and support of host community. Because of this, the study was aimed to determine the effective factors influencing the local residents’ satisfaction of tourism and also their support of this activity. In this research, a survey method was conducted. The population of this study includes all rural areas’ residents of Masjedsoleiman, Andika and Lali counties in Khuzestan province which benefits from Stratified random sampling with the sample size of 250. Data was collected by using questionnaires which its validity was confirmed by experts and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α = 0/63 to 0/92). The results of the correlation test showed that the residents’ satisfaction of tourist areas has a meaningful relation (0/1) with perceived quality (r = 0/342), perceived image (r = 0/178), and commitment (r = 0/481) variables; and residents’ support variable (r = 0/442) was significantly associated and has a meaningful relation (0/1) with the variables of perceived quality (0/5), perceived value (0/179), perceived image (r =0/328), commitment (r = 0/567) and satisfaction (r = 0/451). Moreover, the results of regression analysis indicated that the variables of commitment, satisfaction and perceived image could explain a total of 38/2 % of the variations in residents’ support, and also the variable of perceived quality could explain a total of 11.7 % of the variation in residents’ satisfaction. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - The effect of religious tourism on quality of life and social capital of rural households (Case Study: Bardy village, Dehloran County).
       
      Iss. 6 , Vol. 3 , Autumn_Winter 2016
      Religious tourism is one of the oldest forms of tourism that has been considered by human beings which caused changes in the quality of life and social capital of the host society through changes between their interactions. This phenomenon is more obvious in third world More
      Religious tourism is one of the oldest forms of tourism that has been considered by human beings which caused changes in the quality of life and social capital of the host society through changes between their interactions. This phenomenon is more obvious in third world countries’ rural areas that are experiencing their early stages of tourism development. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of religious tourism on quality of life and social capital of rural households in Bardi village, Dehloran County. This is an applied research, which benefits from descriptive and analytical method. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire, interviews, observation and desk research while data analysis was done through descriptive and inferential statistics method (Friedman and Wilcoxon tests). The study population was 165 households and 857 people of Bardy village according to 2011 census. Accordingly 102 households were chosen as sample size based on Cochran formula. Research findings show that religious tourism has affected and improved their quality of life in all aspects, including social, environmental (higher than average) and economical, physical (on average), also research findings regarding the social capital component shows that, after the expansion of religious tourism, social participation, social networks and social cohesion has improved, but the aspect of social trust has been reduced dramatically. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - The Impact of Perceived Value and Sense of Place on Tourist Loyalty (Case Study: Hamedan Province)
      mostafa taheri
      Iss. 8 , Vol. 4 , Autumn_Winter 2016
      The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors that impact tourist loyalty from two perspectives: “perceived value” and “sense of place”. The study aims to answer the following questions: Are there any relations between the dimensions of perceived value and sense More
      The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors that impact tourist loyalty from two perspectives: “perceived value” and “sense of place”. The study aims to answer the following questions: Are there any relations between the dimensions of perceived value and sense of place with loyalty to the destination brand? If so, to what extent are they correlated? Which dimensions play a more important role? Sample size was determined by using Cochran’s formula. A total of 384 questionnaires were randomly destributed between tourists in Hamedan Province during summer 2016. Given the Pearson correlation coefficients, the dimensions of perceived value (Functional, emotional, and social value) and sense of place (identity, dependence, and attachment) were found to be associated with tourist loyalty to destination brand. Standardized R2 was 45.9 and nearly 45 percent of the variation in tourist loyalty was explained by the model. Perceived Functional value and sense of dependence were the strongest predictors of loyalty, followed by perceived emotional value, social value, sense of attachment, and sense of identity, respectively. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Socio - economic factors affecting overnight stays of domestic tourists (case study: Mashhad)
      Hadi Rafiy    
      Iss. 7 , Vol. 4 , Spring_Summer 2016
      Tourist overnight stays is a key factor in decision making process for tourists and it has a fundamental importance for tourism destinations. Length of stay is one of the most important determinants of tourism which affects the economy of a region. Mashhad is one of the More
      Tourist overnight stays is a key factor in decision making process for tourists and it has a fundamental importance for tourism destinations. Length of stay is one of the most important determinants of tourism which affects the economy of a region. Mashhad is one of the tourist destinations which its tourists and pilgrims was increased in number but their average length of stay was decreased recently. According to statistics, about 75 percent of pilgrims and tourists of Mashhad stay less than a week and only 25% of them are staying more than one week and the overnight stay average of Mashhad pilgrims is 5/43 days. The main objective of this study is to identify the socio-economic factors affecting the overnight stays of tourists and pilgrims in Mashhad. For this purpose, 692 questionnaires were completed randomly among tourists and pilgrims of Mashhad in spring 2015. Data were evaluated by Ordered Logit Model. The length of stay (the dependent variable) is classified into three groups; less than five days, between 5 to 7 days and more than 7 days. Results showed that the type of trip (Lonely), the frequency of traveling to Mashhad , the number of family members accompanying during the trips, food preparing ways and education level, have significant negative effects and the type of transportation (train) and income level (between 10.000.000 – 20.000.000 IRR) have significant positive effects on tourists and pilgrims overnight stay in Mashhad. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Evaluating the socio– cultural impact of tourism on the host community (case study: Baneh)
      mehdi karoubi   m r
      Iss. 8 , Vol. 4 , Autumn_Winter 2016
      The presence of tourists at every country will influence the pattern of life, of the local people. Also, visitors will be affected by the culture and existing values of the host country. In this research, we studied the positive and negative effects of tourism developme More
      The presence of tourists at every country will influence the pattern of life, of the local people. Also, visitors will be affected by the culture and existing values of the host country. In this research, we studied the positive and negative effects of tourism development on the host community. This research was conducted by survey method and benefited of schedule interview (Baneh households). The sample size of this research was 369 (people) and it was done through Multi-stage cluster sampling method. Cronbach's alpha was 70 percent which showed relatively a high reliability. Regression analysis has been considered for the data analysis and hypotheses testing. Analysis of the data, shows that the most efficient factor in prediction of dependent variable "change in the host community", is cultural change. After that, conspicuous consumption and cultural adaption have the highest influence on the host community attitude change. Cultural Commodification has lower effect on changing the host community attitude comparing to other indicators. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Analysis of Local, National and Global Geographical Scales’ Effects on Kurdistan’s tourism development
       
      Iss. 6 , Vol. 3 , Autumn_Winter 2016
      Tourism is a complex and multidimensional industry that planning for its development needs consistency and convergence of actions in different levels of decision-making. Tourism development is possible when practical actions in local scale will be aligned with macro pol More
      Tourism is a complex and multidimensional industry that planning for its development needs consistency and convergence of actions in different levels of decision-making. Tourism development is possible when practical actions in local scale will be aligned with macro policy-making in national scale and current trends in global scale. This research intends to survey the effects of local, national and global scales on the tourism development in Kurdistan province and then while determining the most affecting scale in tourism development in the studied area, identifying the most important factors in the mentioned triple scales that prevent developing of tourism in that area. This research is an applied analytical-descriptive study which benefits from qualitative methodology. The data were collected through desk research and field survey. Main assumption of this research is that national scale due to its interstitial nature has the most influence on tourism underdevelopment and political factors that necessarily are not related to tourism, are the most important causes of tourism underdevelopment in Kurdistan province. The field and desk research findings approve both assumptions of research. This means that national, global and local scales respectively have the most influence on emergence of status quo and “weakness of transport infrastructure”, “security and political approach towards the local community” in local scale, “political and religious ideological approach towards tourism policy making” in national scale and “strained political relations between Iran and the West” in global scale are the most important factors in tourism underdevelopment in Kurdistan province. Manuscript profile
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