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No 18
Vol. 18 No. 9
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As a service industry that has significantly expanded in recent years, tourism plays an important role in developing many countries, including Iran, which enjoys various unique historical, religious, cultural, and natural sites and a four-season climate. Therefore, this study set out to examine the efficiency of Iran's tourism industry using tourism data regarding its 31 provinces during the years 2011 to 2017, including the information concerning the budget allocated to the tourism sector, the number of accommodation places, the number of tourist attraction sites in each province, and the number of domestic and foreign tourists. To this end, Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The study's results showed that Ardabil, Tehran, Kohkiluyeh Boyer-Ahmad, and Gilan had had the efficiency in terms of tourism throughout the study period, with their average efficiency as a primary criterion for assessing the efficiency of the country's tourism industry reported as average. Moreover, the analysis of the tourism industry's efficiency in different climates suggested that the highest efficiency belonged to the temperate and humid climate, and the lowest one was related to the hot and dry climate. Therefore, it seems that facilitating transportation infrastructure and providing welfare facilities, especially in provinces with low efficiency, could help use the potentials of different provinces to develop the country's tourism industry.
maryam asadpour kordi - - -
Keywords : Tourism Industry# Fuzzy Data# Climate# Efficiency# Iran#
This study sought to analyze the content of tourism education in elementary school textbooks. To this end, some 3776 pages of the textbooks' full content were analyzed using the Shannon entropy method. The study's corpus consisted of 41 elementary school textbooks, including Persian Reading, Persian Writing, Experimental Sciences, Social Studies, Heavenly Gifts, Quran, Work and Technology, and Thinking and research. To obtain the validity of the content analysis, four main components of tourism education were derived from the available literature of the field, using the CVR method. Moreover, after reviewing the textbooks' content twice, the results were presented to three different raters to confirm the reliability of the identified components. Accordingly, the data's content validity was found to be 0.09, and its reliability was reported as 0.70. The study's results indicated that the most and least significant components were "The Whatness of tourism" and "The whoness of the tourists" (Tourist identity), respectively." In addition, the highest frequency of the data was found in the social studies book.
ebrahim salehi omran -
Keywords : Tourism education# Tourist# Textbook# Elementary Program of Studies# Content analysis# ،
In the new world of tourism, information technology is used to manage tourism destinations, develop business models, and interact with tourists. Thus, in a tourism destination, the alignment of IT-based practical actions needs to be taken into account. This study set out to analyze the influential factors involved in implementing e-tourism and develop a useful model in this regard, trying to propose operational actions based on the evaluation scores of the factors in the area under study. These factors were obtained from the related literature using thematic analysis. Moreover, interpretive structural modeling was used to determine the relationships between the factors and complexity reduction. The study’s statistical population comprised Hamadan’s tourism experts who were selected via purposive sampling. The study’s findings showed that out of the eleven factors involved in implementing e-tourism, social factors (governmental laws and policies, public awareness and culture, and sense of trust and justice) were the main driving forces. The dependence of technical factors (IT infrastructures in tourist attractions and destination management organizations) on other factors was found to be greater than the other ones. Moreover, based on the study’s results, specific measures were proposed for implementing information technology in Hamadan’s tourism industry through capital asset acquisition projects, private investment projects, and executive activities.
Abbas Sadeghi Pouryani - Abolfazl Tajzadehnamin - - Mansour Esmaeilpour - Ali Asgari Sarem
Keywords : Interpretive Structural Modeling# Hamadan Province# e-Tourism# Implementation of e-Tourism# ،
"Due to its very nature, tourism enjoys proper grounds for entrepreneurship development. There are limited studies on the development of entrepreneurship in tourism. Among the growing areas of tourism, ‘Cultural Tourism’ could be referred to as a demanding preference for development in areas with the potentials for growth. This study sought to provide a model for entrepreneurship development in cultural tourism using Grounded theory. To this end, some eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect the required data, out of which and 367 primary codes, 97 secondary codes, 44 concept codes were extracted and classified into ten distinct categories. The study’s population consisted of university instructors and lecturers, experts working in state-owned tourism institutions, the owners of active businesses in Yazd cultural tourism, and the professionals within the field who were selected through ‘theoretical sampling.’ Moreover, the sample size was determined based on theoretical saturation. The study’s results found via the application of the ‘three-pronged model’ indicated that factors involved in the development of cultural tourism entrepreneurship could be categorized in three general categories of ‘structural factors,’ grounds and ‘environmental conditions, and ‘behavioral factors,’ each including their own relevant components and indices.
Mehdi Basouli - seyed saeed hashemi - Mohammad Hossein Imani khoshkho - Seysd habib o allah mirghafouri
Keywords : Entrepreneurship Development# Cultural Tourism# Grounded theory# Yazd city# ،
The UNESCO registry of communities' cultural heritage as the World Heritage Sites prepares the ground for further development of tourism industry, requiring local communities' contribution to the success of preservation programs. Given that Yazd province includes a historic city with several gardens and aqueducts that have been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage list, it demands the identification of influential factors involved in achieving maximum social contribution and improving the process of destination's strategic management. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the influential factors involved in enhancing the social contribution of the local community in preserving the world heritage sites existing in Yazd province. The study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-correlational in terms of data collection. The study's statistical population comprised all tourism professionals and staff who were active in Yazd during winter 2019, out of which 155 individuals were selected as the sample size via stratified random sampling. After measuring the validity and reliability of the instruments, the collected data were analyzed via LISREL software and structural equation modeling. The results suggested that perception, interest, the locals' knowledge and their awareness of the contribution process, and the opportunities and awards offered by managers for contributing to preserving the world heritage sites had significant direct effects on all levels of contribution (forced, induced, & voluntary), with voluntary contribution affected the most in comparison with other levels.
Ali Asghar Shalbafian - Fatemeh Khazaei - Maryam Abdoli - Negar Rajabi
Keywords : Social Contribution Levels# Effective Factors on Contribution# Host Community# Preserving Cultural Heritage# Yazd# ،

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